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8 tháng 10, 2007

Understanding the New Blogger Template (1)

Dear Friend,

In an effort to document the inner working of the new Beta templating system, I will try to explain to you in slightly-above everyday language how it works. In my opinion, the new templating system is more straight-forward than the classic one, in that it uses simple logic such as the b:if and the b:loop; but more importantly, it allows the seamlessly mixing of code between Beta and JavaScript, thus provides new possibilities in generating interesting templates.

I assume my target audience has only the very basic knowledge of the code of a simple HTML, and some very basic knowledge of what is an if statement, or a loop statement, in general (I will review what it means though, so don't be scared.) If you know a little bit about CSS, that's great too, but it is not required - since I don't know much either, aside from some simple tweakings of existing CSS code.

1. How Things Work

I remember the first time I ever wrote a simple HTML file. It's really nice to see that you can write something on the body part, and it shows/renders on the page right away. If I put a pair of <b> and </b> around that text, it becomes a bold text, and so on. Then, as I create more and more documents, I have to make links for the user to click on them to jump to other articles.

The problem is, every time I create a new file, I have to go back to every single of my existing files to add a link to this new file. Not only that, if I want to change my site's visual look, I have to edit all these files without exception. You could imagine how chaotic and inconsistent of these files' code after a while.

Templating system to the rescue! Imagine that you have a file that would take care of all the nitty-gritty of maintaining links to all the posts, yet powerful enough so that a simple change to this file such as the site's title would update all the files to appear with the same new look. Well, Blogger Classic did just that, and its users are quite happy with this templating design, along with its free hosting service. (Didn't Blogger just celelebrate its seven-years-in-existence a month ago?)

To be fair, Blogger is probrably not the first nor the only solution out there that offers its users this kind of templating. But along with the new Blogger Beta, the much anticipated templating design does follow Goggle's simplicity trademark by providing a more simple, XML (almost)-compliant version, yet flexible enough that you can extend its functionalities by allowing integration with JavaScript.

2. Beta's template is a HTML file

Let us now looking at Blogger's Beta template by unfolding one layer at a time its very basic structure. To so this, I save one of its design to my desktop, then drag it onto Internet Explorer, and click on the minus (-) red symbols at the front of several div tags until I reach this basic level as seen below,



I will not go into details here but will only touch on the basic facts. First of all, this is a XHTML file. It has the xml tag at its very fisrt line, with an encoding parameter UTF-8. This is very important, it means I can store both ASCII (western) characters, as well as other unicode characters such as Vietnamese one. This is great, because it allows me to target two audiences while sharing the same internal working and filing system.

As with any HTML file, our template has a head section, and a body section. The head part is for showing the file's title, storing the CSS code, and some common scripting functions, if any. The body is for storing instructions on how to display/undisplay widget elements, as we shall review next.

One important fact to point out is, even at this high-level design, as with any well thought-out system, we have already seen a basic software engineering design of "separating of concerns." Indeed, the CSS part - controlling the look of the site, is separated from the logical code in the body part. The body should not have any instructions on how to layout the visual look of the webpage.

Because this is a XHTML file, users whom are familiar with HTML know right away on how to use HTMl tags. More important, if you're not follow the HTML rules, your website will not work at all! This XHTML compliant feature gives a strong clue on how to make the template runs indeed. It's either worked or not worked, and nothing in between.

3. The head section

As noted above, the head has nothing more than the title's name, CSS instructions, and some JavaScript functions.



Based on Beta's online Help, a b:include tag allows us to run something with the function named all-head-content. My best guess is that, after this line, you can start to access global variables such as the homepage's blog name, its url, and some other common data, as specified in the Layout's Data Tags online document.

Indeed, the title uses the blog's page title for showing in the upper left corner of the viewer's browser.

<title>
<data:blog.pageTitle />
</title>

Inside the skin tag, there are CSS instructions, as well-documented in the help article entitled Fonts and Colors Tags for Layouts

If you wish to add JavaScript code, then put them right before the </head> tag. You probably have seen some (if not most) of my hacks use this appending approach.

As for the body section, there are so much to discuss about, indeed. In my next article, I will start to peel off and discuss each layer of the body section at a time. Stay tune.

Cheers,

Hoctro (9/26/2006)
Blog: http://hoctro.blogspot.com/

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Understanding the New Blogger Template (1)
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